3. WELL INJECTION: PART I

fracking

3. WELL INJECTION: PART I SEISMIC TESTING

    “Hydraulic fracturing, informally referred to as “fracking,” is an oil and gas well development
    process that typically involves injecting water, sand, and chemicals under high pressure
    into a bedrock formation via the well. This process is intended to create new fractures
    in the rock as well as increase the size, extent, and connectivity of existing fractures.

    Hydraulic fracturing is a well-stimulation technique used commonly in low-permeability rocks
    like tight sandstone, shale, and some coal beds to increase oil and/or gas flow to a well from
    petroleum-bearing rock formations. A similar technique is used to create improved permeability
    in underground geothermal reservoirs.” -energy.USGS.gov

SEISMIC TESTING

Before fluid is injected into an oil or gas well, the well has to be positioned and drilled.

    “Seismic testing is used to help determine the geological characteristics below the surface of
    the ground before a drill is ever started. Marcellus Shale seismic testing usually uses 2D or
    3D imaging. In conjunction with this testing, seismic companies often bore holes 20-feet deep
    in a set pattern where they can place 2 lbs to 4 lbs dynamite charges for later detonation
    while seismic equipment in the area is monitoring the shock waves.” -marcellus-shale.us
energy.usgs.gov

energy.usgs.gov

STEP BY STEP SEISMIC SURVEY

Here is one description of a seismic testing process proposed by Seital, Inc. in Alleghany, PA:

    After obtaining the appropriate permits “The company then conducts a hazard survey, in which
    they identify any potential hazards to avoid when conducting seismic testing, such as
    pipelines, waterlines, wells, roads and rivers. Gordon said they maintain a setback of 300 feet
    from shot holes to any well, structure or water source. The company then does an access survey,
    where they map out properties, the best access points and where gates and access roads are
    located.

    Next, they mark where their equipment will go, including shot holes – the holes they drill and
    insert explosives into – and geophones, which are essentially sensors that pick up the
    vibrations that set off from the explosives, bounce off the subsurface rock and then travel
    back toward the surface.

    Next comes the drilling. Seitel drills holes 30 feet deep and 3 to 4 inches in diameter. At the
    bottom of the hole, they place pentolite, a type of explosive. This is covered in gravel and
    drill cuttings from the hole. A 3.3-pound can charge – or explosion – is then set off. The
    charge, Gordon said, can be felt anywhere from 3 to 4 miles away.

    The vibrations from the charge travel under the surface, hit off the subsurface rock
    formations, then come back up to the surface, where they are measured by the geophones that are
    set up in a grid around the shot holes. There can be as many as 2,000, 3.5-inch long geophones
    set up in an 8-square mile area. The proposed area for the seismic testing in Beaver and
    Allegheny is 157 square miles, officials said.

    However, sometimes shot holes are not possible, due to location or geography. That’s when the
    vibroseis trucks are used to send the vibrations under the ground. These trucks, which weigh
    about 48,000 pounds, lower a plate onto the ground and send a vibration into the ground, which
    travels under the surface and bounces off the underground rock. It then travels back upwards
    and is measured, similar to how the shot holes work.

    Seitel then records the vibrations that return to map out the rock layers underneath the
    surface, Gordan said. The information is then sold to oil and gas companies looking to extract
    natural gas from the Marcellus shale in the area.

    Seismic testing, Gordon said, shows where the rock is, how thick it is and where fault lines
    are. It does not show where the natural gas is located.” -shalereporter.com

Click to Enlarge

Click to Enlarge

SEISMIC TESTING: SOCIAL & ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS

In general seismic testing “disturbances” to the environment are minimal.
This is assuming the seismic testing companies follow protocol, agreed upon procedures, and
inform residents and/or property owners of their activities.

EQUIPMENT

The most common complaints about seismic testing have to do with the vehicles and equipment
which can be cumbersome, noisy, slow traffic, and release diesel emissions into the air.

    According to a survey by the U.S. Bureau of Land management, this type of geophysical operation
    typically includes over 30 vehicles including helicopters, drills, wheelers, ATVs, trailers,
    vans and other trucks. There would be 5 vibroseis trucks on site (also called ‘thumper trucks’
    & ‘buggy vibrators’), with 4 working together at a time (each truck can weigh up to over
    60,000 lbs). Their impact on the soil, air and water, and ecosystem are considered for the most
    part negligible, short-term and/or minimal.

VIBRATIONS

The bulk of the disturbances created by seismic testing involve the shockwaves (and associated
noise) which create vibrations in the ground. Sometimes they can be felt and heard on the
surface by people living nearby. This can be unsettling if people were not aware that seismic
testing was going to happen. Mostly there have been complaints about windows rattling;
otherwise the disturbance is generally negligible.

    “In an urban environment, vibroseis-generated waves are less than background noise
    generated by buses, trucks, and trains (repeated signals are used in order to be
    distinguishable from background noise). At its source you can feel a vibroseis shake the ground
    but as you move away your ears will hear the airborne sound waves much longer than your feet
    can feel those in the ground” -geology.utah.gov

PROPERTY DAMAGE

There have been some allegations of property damage caused by the vibrations.
I have not been able to locate the verdict or settlement for the following
case so I cannot say whether the allegation was upheld. The company carrying
out seismic testing examined the property and stated the damage was not caused
by the testing. However property owners insist it was.

    ORANGE COUNTY, TEXAS
    “In late November 2005, defendants began seismic testing on Briarcliff with ‘thumper trucks’
    sending strong sound waves into the earth to detect mineral reserves… As a result of the loud
    sound waves, pictures were shaken off the walls and their homes damaged
    Plaintiffs discovered their houses sustained serious losses and damages after the seismic
    testing”

    “[Plaintiffs] reported their claim to defendants who investigated and concluded that the
    admittedly obvious cosmetic and structural damage to their 40-year-old home was more likely due
    to natural settlement rather than the ‘thumper trucks’”

    “Plaintiffs [..] assert that the defendants were negligent, created a nuisance and
    trespassed… Defendants were liable for the damage resulting from their failure to adequately
    hire, train and supervise the implementation and testing at issue.”
    The case was assigned to the 128th Judicial District (Case No. A-070652-C)

CASE STUDY: SURFACE DAMAGE FROM SEISMIC WORK, WYOMING

niobraradamage_banner
[Excerpt from ‘Surface Damage from Niobrara Seismic crew results in Citations‘ by Dusten Bleitzeffer]

    “Seismic crews working in the Niobrara shale oil play caused serious rutting and other surface
    damage earlier this year on 10 different ranch properties in southeast Wyoming, resulting in
    several state-issued citations for the operator, Fidelity Exploration & Production Co., and the
    seismic contractor, GeoKinetics.

    On Tuesday, the 5-member Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission (OGCC) board voted
    unanimously to fine Fidelity up to $500 for failure to follow the approved plan of operations.
    The board also voted unanimously to fine GeoKinetics $2,000 for each of the 10 ranch properties
    damaged for a total of $20,000. Originally, OGCC staff had recommended a $10,000 fine, but OGCC
    board member Gov. Matt Mead successfully added an amendment to double the fine, and suspend the
    additional $10,000 on the condition that the landowners are satisfied with remediation work.

    “I want to make sure the landowners are compensated,” said Mead, whose family owns ranching
    operations in southeast Wyoming.

    For now, there’s no order to compensate the landowners beyond whatever each might have worked
    out in their individual “surface use” agreements with Fidelity. The state holds a $75,000 bond
    posted by Fidelity for the project, and GeoKinetics has a $50,000 blanket bond posted with the
    state, both of which could be used to cover repairs if the companies do not meet their current
    obligations. However, there’s no compensation for taking significant portions of the ranches
    out of production
    as repairs and reclamation take place.

    “We haven’t been compensated for it. … I sell my grass to other cattlemen and that’s how I make
    my living,” Goshen County rancher Darrel Hamilton told WyoFile.

    Hamilton and several other ranchers attended the OGCC’s hearing on Tuesday, voicing their
    concern that the damages to their property may never be fully repaired.

    In several areas GeoKinetics used the wrong type of tires for its vibroseis fleet, leaving ruts
    deeper than six inches, and tearing up hillsides and channels.

    Lucas Keeler, natural resource technician for the OGCC, testified that at first the seismic
    operator downplayed the extent of the damage. “I don’t think the extent of the damages was
    quite reported,” Keeler told the commission board.

    Repairing the damaged surface may be a challenge, and it’s likely to interfere with ranching
    operations. Hamilton said the biggest concern is erosion from the deep rutting. One option is
    to haul in topsoil impregnated with seed.

    “And hopefully we get the right moisture at the right time to get that to grow,” said Hamilton.

    The topsoil amendments must be staked down and fenced off from cattle, which is likely to take
    a portion of the ranching operations out of production for 3-5 years, according to Hamilton.

    In general, farmers and ranchers in the region — especially those who own mineral rights — have
    embraced the recent search for shale oil in hopes of sharing in the revenue. Some of the
    landowners who suffered damages in the Rocky Hollow seismic project said they still support the
    industry. In a letter to the commission, John Kessler of the Kessler Ranch wrote;

    “When we were approached by Fidelity about seismography, we agreed without hesitation. Our
    neighbors’ ranch had been surveyed recently, and they were impressed by their efficiency and
    lack of impact. We have watched Fidelity build a road and drill two wells in our community. It
    is obvious that every consideration has been given to their maintenance and reclamation. That
    is what we expect. We also expect fairness and good representation from our oil and gas
    commission.”

    However, OGCC staff had been dissatisfied with GeoKinetics’ previous work in Wyoming, including
    the “Little Mitchell” project in northeast Wyoming where state inspectors found “numerous
    violations of the commissions rules and regulations,”
    according to state documents. In email
    correspondence, OGCC’s Keeler explained to a Fidelity representative why he was recommending a
    higher bond ($75,000) for the Rocky Hollow project; “Truth be told, there are two Geokinetic
    projects where the work wasn’t satisfactory, and we are having to wait until spring for these
    projects to be completed correctly.”

    Powder River Basin Resource Council (PRBRC), a landowner advocacy group based in Sheridan, said
    the Rocky Hollow case highlights a profound weakness in Wyoming’s split-estate law.

    In many instances, the surface estate is separate from the underlying minerals, yet the owner
    of the mineral estate has the right to enter the surface to access his minerals. That’s split-
    estate. If the surface and mineral estate owners don’t come to an agreement and sign a legally-
    binding “surface use” agreement (which typically includes compensation to the surface owner),
    then the mineral owner must post a minimum $2,000 bond with the state.

    That bond, which resides with the state and not the landowner, is supposed to cover any surface
    damages by the oil and gas operation. Landowner advocates such as the PRBRC have argued that
    the $2,000 split-estate bond doesn’t come close to covering the potential surface damage of oil
    and gas operations, nor does it compel operators to negotiate a surface use agreement in good
    faith.

    The split-estate issue didn’t enter the Rocky Hollow seismic case. However, the extent of the
    damage is the same that a split-estate surface owner might face — with only a $2,000 bond
    posted with the state.

    “The property damages to these landowners from the seismic operations in this case is another
    example of what an insult the $2,000 bond is to landowners. That low bond does not begin to
    address the damages, the cost of reclamation or act as an incentive for industry to act
    responsibly or negotiate in good faith,” said PRBRC organizer Jill Morrison.

    The PRBRC published a report on the state’s split-estate act in 2010, criticizing the $2,000
    bond. Industry fought against a measure in 2011 to raise the minimum split-estate bond from
    $2,000 to $10,000. The Legislative Judiciary Committee is taking up the topic again this summer
    during the interim.

    “At least, the Wyoming Oil and Gas Commission was on top of the damages in this case but only
    because the landowners forced the issue,” said Morrison. “We need to raise the bond for oil and
    gas industry for seismic activity and for all oil and gas activity.”

    GeoKinetics declined a request by WyoFile to comment on the case. Fidelity didn’t respond to
    requests for comment.”

COLORADO: SEISMIC TESTING DISTURBANCES & CONFLICT

[Excerpt from ‘Seismic surveying rattles Colorado homeowners‘ by Bruce Finley]

    “A Dec. 14 [2012] surveillance video shows a utility vehicle parking on the Crumbleys’ yard. A
    man, apparently a monitoring technician, got out and crossed the yard as a Geokinetics truck
    under contract for Anadarko Petroleum Corp. rolled along an adjacent road emitting seismic
    blasts.

    The Crumbleys allege that seismic vibrations caused the structural damage in their house and
    barn and triggered the collapse of their well — which six days later gave no water.

    “I thought we were having an earthquake,” Crumbley said. “If we don’t have water, we don’t have
    a home. And we don’t have $20,000 for a new well.”

    When their insurer told them to find out the insurer of Houston-based Geokinetics, the project
    manager refused to provide information.

    Geokinetics’ manager could not be reached.

    Anadarko spokesman John Christiansen said the company has determined that the thumper truck did
    not cause the damage
    .

    “No one knows the cause of what happened there,” Christiansen said. “When you shoot seismic,
    the energy goes downward. It does not go outward to a large extent.”

    If the company found itself responsible, Christiansen said, “Anadarko is self-insured” and
    would cover its contractor Geokinetics.

    Over the past three years, Anadarko surveyed 675 square miles north of Denver. Seismic
    contractors this year will cover another 70 square miles near Johnstown and a smaller area near
    Platteville.

    The contract technicians who monitor the intensity of vibrations have been “consistently busy”
    between Brighton and Greeley, said Cody Fletcher, operations manager for Urban Seismics, which
    monitors Geokinetics.

    The man videotaped in the Crumbleys’ yard worked for Urban Seismics and, the company
    acknowledged, failed to knock on their door before the thumper trucks rolled by.

    There are about 50,000 oil and gas wells statewide, and the number is increasing by about 50
    per week.

    “Around Colorado, the population is growing. It’s almost impossible to find something that is
    truly remote to research,” Fletcher said. Now the areas near homes “are where they need to
    look.”

    The COGCC regulators — charged by lawmakers with primary oversight of the oil and gas industry
    require companies to give written advance notification to the state and also local officials.

    Seismic companies must make a good faith effort to reach all landowners before conducting
    seismic surveys near homes. But Colorado has no rules for when and how seismic surveys can be
    done. Remedies for damages are left to courts.

    “We have the notice requirement,” COGCC director Matt Lepore said in a recent interview. “We
    don’t have a whole lot else. It’s something we have to look at.”

    State records show that since 2000, residents have filed 16 formal complaints about seismic
    surveys. Geokinetics recently was fined $10,000 for failing to give advance notice before a
    seismic operation.

    In Aurora, conflicts with residents flared earlier this year after Geokinetics conducted
    surveys. Residents complained to crews about sensors on their lawns. City council members
    reported that Geokinetics reps “told our citizens to ‘not touch the equipment or we will call
    the police,'” according to a letter Aurora officials sent to the company.

    Geokinetics later informed the city “tens of thousands of dollars” of equipment was stolen or
    destroyed, Aurora planning manager Jim Sayre said.

    Seismic sensors and cables were strung across the Murphy Creek neighborhood in southeast Aurora
    around Christmas Eve. Thumper trucks rolled through in January, said resident Kim Smith, an
    intensive-care nurse and mother of three.

    Smith’s husband “thought it was a helicopter landing outside,” she said. “We got no notice of
    anything.”

    Smith called her homeowner association and got no explanation. She called Aurora officials.
    “The city said they don’t have any regulation for that.”

    Since then, the city has set a new policy. “We hope to improve over our experience in January,”
    Sayre wrote in a Feb. 14 letter to Geokinetics.

    Companies now must obtain city permits and provide written notice to city officials and
    residents before beginning seismic surveying.

    Colorado regulators are taking a look at the damage to the Crumbleys’ home.

    “We investigate all complaints and conduct on-site visits when it makes sense, such as if
    someone has complained about physical damage or impacts,” state spokesman Todd Hartman said.

    On Wednesday morning, COGCC environmental supervisor Steve Lindblom and a contractor
    photographed cracks in walls and drew water samples. The samples will be sent to a lab for
    analysis.

    The Crumbleys’ well originally was 60 feet deep. A well-service company found it collapsed and
    now is 48 feet deep and must be replaced. The pump could not be retrieved from under sediment.
    A new pump was installed to restore water service for now.

    “Once I get the (water test) results back, I’ll send you a letter,” Lindblom told Mieko
    Crumbley.

    But water contamination wasn’t the issue.

    Hartman said state officials now are “making arrangements with engineers with the right
    expertise to review the information on the water well.””

NEW BRUNSWICK: ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS DURING GAS EXPLORATION

[Excerpt from ‘NB residents turn to Mi’kmaq as environmental concerns bubble to surface in wake of shale gas
exploration
‘ by Jorge Barrera]

“Environmental concerns are beginning to bubble to the surface in the wake of SWN Resources
Canada’s shale gas exploration work and some New Brunswickers are turning to the Mi’kmaq for
help.

One couple, living on the outskirts of Moncton, saw the sudden appearance of coliform bacteria
in their well water after SWN’s thumper trucks rumbled across their front door. Near
Rogersville, a senior citizen, in his 70s, discovered water bubbling up through a seismic
testing shot-hole in the bush behind his property.

Both reached out to the Mi’kmaq battling it out on the highway with SWN.

Roger Pierskalla, who lives with his wife along Hwy 126 near Moncton, said a company hired by
SWN to conduct the well water tests after the thumper trucks rolled by phoned to tell them they
should immediately boil their water before drinking and contact the regional health inspector’s
office.

Tests results showed his well water had three units of total coliform forming colonies per 100
ml, far above the Canadian Drinking Water Guidelines’ maximum acceptable standard of zero.
While coliform bacteria may not pose an immediate threat, it can indicate the presence of other
dangerous microorganisms. The drinking water guidelines are set by a federal-provincial-
territorial committee.

“I was upset, this is our lifeline, you can’t live without water. In one form or another, you
need water,” said Pierskalla, 68.

Then he received a letter from Stantec.

“Based on this detection, we recommend you boil your drinking/cooking water or sued bottled
water until the issue had been addressed,” said the letter, dated July 25.

Pierskalla’s water was tested twice, once in April 2012 and in the same month the following
year. The tests were both conducted by Fredericton-based Stantec, which had been hired by SWN
to conduct the sampling. In both those tests, Pierskalla’s well water came back with zero total
coliform forming colonies.

When Stantec tested the well water again on July 23, 2013, after thumper trucks had rolled
across Peirskalla’s front door, the results showed the presence of the bacteria. He was forced
to shock chlorinate his well. He also called the regional provincial health department’s
regional health protection office, which did not call back to follow up.

“That never went anywhere after that. Nobody came out to check anything or do anything since,”
said Pierskalla.

Pierskalla’s wife recently got in touch with people in Elsipogtog saying she had proof that the
thumper trucks had ruined their water.

“They are part of our land here, they look after our land,” said Pierskalla, who traces his
ancestry to Wabanaki Confederacy chiefs. “We have proof that these things do create changes in
our water, we have it here…this their testing and this is their results.”

About 80 km north up and off Hwy 126 near Rogersville, a 75-year-old man was recently walking
through the bush behind his property when he noticed a swamp had sprung up from nowhere. He
noticed that the water was bubbling up from a hole in the ground beneath a tree tacked with a
metal plate indicating it was one of SWN’s exploration lines.

The hole, called a shot-hole, was drilled by SWN contractor Geokinetics as part of seismic
exploration work using explosives. The company drills holes then fills them with explosives.
Data is then gathered off the detonation.

The man, who did not want to be identified, reached out to his friends who knew people in the
Mi’kmaq-led anti-fracking camp. Samples have since been taken to a lab for testing.

APTN National News visited the site and water was clearly bubbling to the surface, creating a
mini-swamp which had an oily sheen in some.

According to Maxime Daigle, a former oil and gas worker with experience across Western Canada
and the U.S., the drill likely punctured through into an aquifer and the company failed to
properly seal it.

“It’s disrupting the aquifer flows that people are depending on to get their water supplies for
their house,” said Daigle, wearing rubber boots and standing ankle-deep in the water and muck.

He said the aquifer was now at risk of contamination.

“You pump down the bentonite and hope for the best and as you can see it’s not working,” said
Daigle, who has been deeply involved with the Mi’kmaq in opposing shale gas exploration.

Bentonite is a type of clay used to seal shot-holes.”

3. WELL INJECTION: PART II DRILLING>>>>>>

<<<<2. CHEMICAL MIXING

_______________________________________________________________________________________________
WHAT IS SEISMIC TESTING
http://geology.utah.gov/surveynotes/gladasked/gladseismicsurveys.htm (Utah.gov)
http://www.marcellus-shale.us/seismic_testing.htm (info and photos)
http://youtu.be/_2dA6hXF-zQ (seismic exploration video)

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT by US Bureau of Land Management
http://www.blm.gov/pgdata/etc/medialib/blm/wy/information/NEPA/cyfodocs/redpoint3d.Par.17409.File.dat/ea_appendices.pdf

SEISMIC SURVEYING ON LAND
http://energy.usgs.gov/GeochemistryGeophysics/SeismicDataProcessingInterpretation.aspx (USGS)
http://epa.gov/esd/cmb/GeophysicsWebsite/pages/reference/methods/Surface_Geophysical_Methods/Seismic_Methods/index.htm (EPA)
http://www.searchanddiscovery.com/index.html (case histories for geoscientists)
http://www.slideshare.net/MarcellusDN/seismic-considerations-guide (guide for landowners)

VIBROSEIS TRUCKS
http://www.terrexseismic.com/terrex-seismic/equipment/vibroseis-trucks.aspx (Terrex Group)
http://youtu.be/4El6U0XTNS0 (WesternGeco Vibroseis)

OIL & GAS EXPLORATION GAME
http://youtu.be/sfWKztzNAzg (learn how geoscientists explore for oil & gas)

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